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Dr. Alexander Eitel
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Former member of staff [2007-12-01 - 2016-03-31]

Dr. Alexander Eitel

Former Projects

How learning is influenced by a reduced legibility of multimedia instructional materials

Metacognitive influences on learning with multimedia

The function of inititally attending to pictures in multimedia learning

Articles in refereed Journals

Richter, J., Scheiter, K., & Eitel, A. (2018). Signaling text–picture relations in multimedia learning: The influence of prior knowledge. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110, 544-560.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/edu0000220 request document
 

Eitel, A., Benito, S. M., & Scheiter, K. (2017). Do it twice! Test-taking fosters repeated but not initial study of multimedia instruction. Learning and Instruction, 52, 36-45.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2017.04.003 request document
 

Schleinschok, K., Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2017). Do drawing tasks improve monitoring and control during learning from text? Learning and Instruction, 51, 10-25.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2017.02.002 request document
 

Eitel, A. (2016). How repeated studying and testing affects multimedia learning: Evidence for adaptation to task demands. Learning and Instruction, 41, 70-84.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.10.003 request document
 

Eitel, A., & Kühl, T. (2016). Effects of disfluency and test expectancy on learning with text. Metacognition and Learning, 11, 107-121.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11409-015-9145-3 request document
 

Kühl, T., & Eitel, A. (2016). Editorial: Effects of disfluency on cognitive and metacognitive processes and outcomes. Metacognition and Learning, 11, 1-13.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11409-016-9154-x request document
 

Richter, J., Scheiter, K., & Eitel, A. (2016). Signaling text-picture relations in multimedia learning: A comprehensive meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 17, 19-36.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2015.12.003 request document
 

Scheiter, K., Eitel, A., & Schüler, A. (2016). Lernen mit Texten und Bildern: Die frühzeitige wechselseitige Beeinflussung kognitiver Prozesse bei der Konstruktion eines integrierten mentalen Modells. Themenheft: Psychologie und Wissensmedien. Psychologische Rundschau, 67, 87-93.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1026/0033-3042/a000300
 

Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2015). Picture or text first? Explaining sequence effects when learning with pictures and text. Educational Psychology Review, 27, 153-180.  https://dx.doi.org/0.1007/s10648-014-9264-4 request document
 

Scheiter, K., & Eitel, A. (2015). Signals foster multimedia learning by supporting integration of highlighted text and diagram elements. Learning and Instruction, 36, 11-26.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2014.11.002 request document
 

Schweppe, J., Eitel, A., & Rummer, R. (2015). The multimedia effect and its stability over time. Learning and Instruction, 38, 24-33.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.03.001 request document
 

Eitel, A., Kühl, T, Scheiter, K., & Gerjets, P. (2014). Disfluency meets cognitive load in multimedia learning: Does harder-to-read mean better-to-understand? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28(4), 488-501.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.3004 request document
 

Kühl, T., Eitel, A., Damnik, G., & Körndle, H. (2014). The impact of disfluency, pacing, and students' need for cognition on learning with multimedia. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 189-198. request document
 

Kühl, T., Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Gerjets, P. (2014). A call for an unbiased search for moderators in disfluency research: Reply to Oppenheimer and Alter (2014). Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28, 805-806.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.3030 request document
 

Lindner, M. A., Eitel, A., Thoma, G.-B., Dalehefte, I. M., Ihme, J. M., & Köller, O. (2014). Tracking the decision making process in multiple-choice assessment: Evidence from eye movements. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28, 738-752.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.v28.5
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Schüler, A. (2013). How inspecting a picture affects processing of text in multimedia learning. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27, 451-461.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.2922 request document
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., Schüler, A., Nyström, M., & Holmqvist, K. (2013). How a picture facilitates the process of learning from text: Evidence for scaffolding. Learning and Instruction, 28, 48-63.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2013.05.002 request document
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Schüler, A. (2012). The time course of information extraction from instructional diagrams. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 115, 677-701.  https://dx.doi.org/10.2466/22.23.PMS.115.6.677-701 request document
 

Proceedings

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Schüler, A. (2011). How brief initial inspection of a picture may foster comprehension of text. In L. Carlson, C. Hölscher, & T. F. Shipley (Eds.), Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1358-1364). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Schüler, A. (2010). Getting a clue: Gist extraction from scenes and causal systems. In A. K. Goel, M. Jamnik, & N. H. Narayanan (Eds.), Diagrammatic representation and inference – 6th International Conference, Diagrams 2010 (LNAI 6170, pp. 243-249). Heidelberg: Springer.
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Schüler, A. (2010). What can information extraction from scenes and causal systems tell us about learning from text and pictures? In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2822-2827). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
 

Scheiter, K., & Eitel, A. (2010). The effects of signals on learning from text and diagrams: How looking at diagrams earlier and more frequently improves understanding. In A. K. Goel, M. Jamnik, & N. H. Narayanan (Eds.), Diagrammatic representation and inference – 6th International Conference, Diagrams 2010 (LNAI 6170, pp. 264-270). Heidelberg: Springer.
 

Chapters in Edited Books

Scheiter, K., Schüler, A., & Eitel, A. (2017). Learning from multimedia: cognitive processes and instructional support. In S. Schwan & U. Cress (Eds.), The psychology of digital learning (pp. 1-19). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
 

Scheiter, K., & Eitel, A. (2016). The use of eye tracking as a research and instructional tool in multimedia learning. In C. Was, F. Sansosti, & B. Morris (Eds.), Eye-tracking technology applications in educational research (pp. 143-164). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
 

Articles in Magazines

Eitel, A., & Kornmann J. (2014). Schwieriger als gedacht?! Potenziale und Risiken des Lernens mit digitalen Medien. InMind, 3.  http://de.in-mind.org/article/schwieriger-als-gedacht-potenziale-und-risiken-des-lernens-mit-digitalen-medien
 

Conference Contributions

Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2017, August). Twice is good! Tast-taking fosters repeated but not initial study of multimedia materials. 17th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). Tampere, Finland. [Talk]
 

Kollmer, J., Eitel, A., Schleinschok, K., & Scheiter, K. (2017, September). Effects of (supported) drawing on self-regulated learning. 17th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). Tampere, Finland. [Talk]
 

Schleinschok, K., Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2017, September). Are drawings more effective than summaries to support students’ monitoring and control processes? 17th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). Tampere, Finland. [Talk]
 

Schleinschok, K., Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2017, September). Verbessern Zeichnungen Selbsteinschätzungen und das Lernverhalten beim Lernen mit Texten? Gemeinsame Tagung der Fachgruppen Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie (PAEPSY). Münster. [Vortrag]
 

Schleinschok, K., Eitel A., & Scheiter, K. (2017, März). Verbessern Zeichnungen Selbsteinschätzungen und das Lernverhalten beim Lernen mit Texten? 5.Tagung der Gesellschaft für Empirische Bildungsforschung. Heidelberg. [Vortrag]
 

Schmidgall, S., Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2017, September). Die Rolle von Generierung, Visualisierung und Externalisierung auf Effekte von Zeichnen als Lernstrategie. Gemeinsame Tagung der Fachgruppen Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie (PAEPSY). Münster. [Vortrag]
 

Schmidgall, S., Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2017, September). What degree of instructional support is helpful for learner-generated drawing? 17th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). Tampere, Finland. [Talk]
 

Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2016, June). Implementation intentions to process pictures early foster comprehension – for those who follow them. International Cognitive Load Conference. Bochum. [Talk]
 

Richter, J., Scheiter, K., & Eitel, A. (2016, July). Signaling text-picture relations in multimedia learning: The influence of prior knowledge. 26th Annual Meeting of the Society for Text and Discourse. Kassel. [Talk]
 

Richter, J., Scheiter, K., & Eitel, A. (2016, July). Signaling text-picture relations in multimedia learning: The influence of prior knowledge. Meeting of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). Special Interest Group (SIG) 2. Geneva, Switzerland. [Talk]
 

Schleinschok, K., Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2016, July). Does drawing support monitoring and control processes during learning from text? Meeting of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). Special Interest Group (SIG) 2. Geneva, Switzerland. [Talk]
 

Schleinschok, K., Eitel A., & Scheiter, K. (2016, September). Führt das Anfertigen einer Zeichnung zu einer akkurateren Selbsteinschätzung des Wissens und dadurch zu einer besseren Regulierung des Lernverhaltens? 50. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie (DGPs). Leipzig. [Vortrag]
 

Schmidgall, S., Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2016, July). How much help do you need? Investigating the role of support for learner-generated drawing. Meeting of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). Special Interest Group (SIG) 2. Geneva, Switzerland. [Talk]
 

Schmidgall, S., Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2016, September). Zeichnen als Lernstrategie - Welche Rolle spielt der Anteil der Eigenleistung beim Anfertigen von Zeichnungen? 50. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie (DGPs). Leipzig. [Vortrag]
 

Schmidgall, S., Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2016, July). Drawing to learn: Is it essential to self-construct? European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). Special Interest Group (SIG) 2. Geneva, Schweiz. [Poster]
 

Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2015, August). Multimedia effects at repeated studying and testing: Evidence for adaptation to task demands. 16th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). Limassol, Cyprus. [Talk]
 

Richter, J., Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2015, August). Learning with digital textbooks: Investigating the Effectiveness of signaling textpicture relations. 16th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). Limassol, Cyprus. [Poster]
 

Richter, J., Scheiter, K., & Eitel, A. (2015, September). Signaling von Text-Bild- Korrespondenzen: Eine metaanalytische Betrachtung. 15. Fachgruppentagung Pädagogische Psychologie (PAEPS). Kassel. [Vortrag]
 

Richter, J., Scheiter, K., & Eitel, A. (2015, September). Signaling multiple external representations: A comprehensive meta-analytic review. 11th Conference of the European Science Education Research Association (ESERA). Helsinki, Finland. [Talk]
 

Schmidgall, S., Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2015, September). Learning with tablets: Can drawing help understanding? Invited talk at 9th Conference of the DGPs Media Psychology Division. Tübingen. [Talk]
 

Schmidgall, S., Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2015, September). Hilft Zeichnen während des Lernens? Ein Vergleich verschiedener Lernstrategien. 15. Fachtagung Pädagogische Psychologie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie (DGPs). Kassel. [Vortrag]
 

Schmidgall, S., Scheiter, K., & Eitel, A. (2015, August). Do learners who draw perform better? A comparison of different learning strategies. 16th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). Limassol, Cyprus. [Roundtable]
 

Eitel, A., Kühl, T., Scheiter, K., & Gerjets, P. (2014, August). Disfluency meets cognitive load in multimedia learning: Does harder to read mean better to understand? Meeting of the EARLI SIG 6&7 Instructional Design & Learning with Computers. Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [Talk]
 

Eitel, A., Richter, J., & Scheiter, K. (2014, June). How to design digital textbooks for natural sciences education. Collaborative Workshop "Digital Media in Education". University of Alberta, Canada. [Talk]
 

Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2014, August). Amplifying multimedia effects by repeating the study-test cycle: Evidence for underconfidence with practice? Meeting of the EARLI SIG2 Text and Graphics Comprehension. Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [Talk]
 

Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2014, März). Müssen hervorgehobene Elemente in Texten und Bildern korrespondieren, um lernförderlich zu sein? 2. Tagung der Gesellschaft für Empirische Bildungsforschung (GEBF). Frankfurt am Main. [Vortrag]
 

Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2014, September). Ist wiederholtes Lernen und Testen besonders hilfreich für das Lernen mit Multimedia? 49. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie. Bochum. [Vortrag]
 

Eitel, A., & Schmidt, M. A. (2014, März). Multimedia-Effekte beim Lernen und Testen: Eine Verbindung der Perspektiven. 2. Tagung der Gesellschaft für Empirische Bildungsforschung (GEBF). Frankfurt am Main. [Symposium Organisation]
 

Scheiter, K., & Eitel, A. (2014, May). Mental model construction from text and pictures: Evidence for construction of a spatial scaffold. METU Informatics Institute Cognitive Science Seminars V: CogSci in Germany, CogSci in Turkey. Ankara, Turkey. [Talk]
 

Schweppe, J., Eitel, A., & Rummer, R. (2014, August). The multimedia effect and its stability over time. EARLI SIG2 Conference. Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [Talk]
 

Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2013, September). Müssen hervorgehobene Elemente in Texten und Bildern korrespondieren um lernförderlich zu sein? 14. Fachtagung Pädagogische Psychologie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie (DGPs). Hildesheim. [Vortrag]
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Schüler, A. (2013, August). How a picture fosters comprehension of text: Evidence from eye movements on blank screen. 15th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). München. [Talk]
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., Schüler, A., Nyström, M., & Holmqvist, K. (2013, August). How a picture fosters comprehension of text: Evidence from eye movements on blank screen. 17th European Conference on Eye Movement Research. Lund, Sweden. [Talk]
 

Kühl, T., Eitel, A., Damnik, G., Scheiter, K., & Körndle, H. (2013, August). Introducing perceptual difficulties might actually hamper learning with narrated visualizations. 15th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). München. [Talk]
 

Schweppe, J., Eitel, A., & Rummer, R. (2013, September). Der Multimediaeffekt beim langfristigen Lernen. 14. Fachtagung Pädagogische Psychologie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie (DGPs). Hildesheim. [Vortrag]
 

Stalbovs, K., Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2013, August). Which cognitive processes predict successful learning with multimedia? 15th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). München. [Talk]
 

Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2012, September). Prozesse beim Lernen mit Text und/oder Bild. Symposium auf dem 48. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie (DGPs). Bielefeld. [Symposium Organisation]
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Schüler, A. (2012, September). Wie eine kurze initiale Bildbetrachtung nachfolgende Textverarbeitung beeinflusst. 48. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie (DGPs). Bielefeld. [Vortrag]
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., Schüler, A., Nyström, M., & Holmqvist, K. (2012, May). How a picture can foster comprehension of text: Evidence for scaffolding. Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye-Tracking (SWAET). Stockholm, Sweden. [Talk]
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., Schüler, A., Nyström, M., & Holmqvist, K. (2012, August). How a picture can scaffold comprehension of text. Meeting of the EARLI SIG2 Text and Graphics Comprehension. Grenoble, France. [Talk]
 

Kühl, T., Eitel, A., Damnik, G., Kapp, F., Proske, A., & Scheiter, K. (2012, September). Die Rolle von disfluent gesprochenem Text beim Lernen mit Multimedia 48. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie (DGPs). Bielefeld. [Vortrag]
 

Kühl, T., Eitel, A., Damnik, G., Proske, A., Scheiter, K., & Körndle, H. (2012, May). Disfluency research meets cognitive load theory in learning with narrated visualizations Meeting of the EARLI SIG 6&7 Instructional Design & Learning with Computers. Bari, Italy. [Talk]
 

Eitel, A., Kühl, T., Scheiter, K., & Gerjets, P. (2011, July). When harder to read means better to understand! Cognitive load theory meets disfluency research when learning with multimedia. 21st Annual Meeting of the Society for Text and Discourse. Poitiers, France. [Talk]
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Schüler, A. (2011, August). Getting a clue: How initially attending to a picture fosters learning from subsequent text. 14th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). Exeter, Great Britain. [Talk]
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Schüler, A. (2011, July). Comprehension of text fostered by short initial presentation of picture. 21st Annual Meeting of the Society for Text and Discourse. Poitiers, France. [Poster]
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Schüler, A. (2011, July). How brief initial inspection of a picture may foster comprehension of text. 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Boston, MA, USA. [Talk]
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Schüler, A. (2011, September). Die lernförderliche Funktion einer kurzen, initialen Bildbetrachtung beim Lernen mit Multimedia. 13. Fachtagung Pädagogische Psychologie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie (DGPs). Erfurt. [Vortrag]
 

Kühl, T., Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Gerjets, P. (2011, September). Wenn schlechte Leserlichkeit zu tieferem Verständnis führt: Disfluency-Forschung versus Cognitive Load Theory beim Lernen mit Multimedia. 13. Fachtagung Pädagogische Psychologie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie (DGPs). Erfurt. [Vortrag]
 

Kühl, T., Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Gerjets, P. (2011, August). Disfluency research meets cognitive load theory in multimedia learning: When a bad layout leads to good performance. 14th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). Exeter, Great Britain. [Talk]
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Schüler, A. (2010, August). What can information extraction from scenes and causal systems tell us about learning from text and pictures? 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Portland, OR, USA. [Talk]
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Schüler, A. (2010, July). Getting a clue: Rapid information extraction from instructional material. 12th JURE Conference (Junior Researchers of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, EARLI). Frankfurt am Main. [Poster]
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Schüler, A. (2010, August). Getting a clue: Gist extraction from scenes and causal systems. Sixth International Conference on the Theory and Application of Diagrams. Portland, OR, USA. [Talk]
 

Eitel, A., Scheiter, K., & Schüler, A. (2010, August). Getting a clue: How initially attending to a picture fosters learning from subsequent text. Meeting of the EARLI SIG2 Text and Graphics Comprehension. Tübingen. [Talk]
 

Rolke, B., Seibold, V., & Eitel, A. (2010, March). Towards the influence of temporal preparation on para- and metacontrast masking. 52. Tagung experimentell arbeitender Psychologen (TeaP). Saarbrücken. [Poster]
 

Scheiter, K., & Eitel, A. (2010, August). The effects of signals on learning from text and diagrams: How looking at diagrams earlier and more frequently improves understanding. 6th International Conference on the Theory and Application of Diagrams. Portland, OR, USA. [Talk]
 

Scheiter, K., & Eitel, A. (2010, August). How to foster the integration of text and diagrams: An eye-tracking study on the use of signals in multimedia learning. 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Portland, OR, USA. [Poster]
 

Scheiter, K., & Eitel, A. (2010, September). Förderung der Integration von Text- und Bildinformation durch Hinweisreize: Blickbewegungen als Mediatoren des Lernerfolgs. 47. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie (DGPs). Bremen. [Vortrag]
 

Web Documents

Dr. Alexander Eitel
Dr. Alexander Eitel