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Adaptive eye movement modeling of strategies

Working groupMultiple Representations Lab
FundingLeibniz-WissenschaftsCampus Tübingen
Project description

In this project we examined the extent to which modelling and adaptive presentation of information processing strategies can be beneficial for multimedia learning. Therefore, we investigated whether eye movement modeling examples or adaptive presentation of beneficial information processing strategies is suitable for conveying adequate information processing strategies to learners. The results of this project are relevant wherever text and pictures are used for knowledge transfer (for example, school or college).

Previous empirical studies have shown that learners are often not able to use essential cognitive information processing strategies in multimedia learning. In this project we used the video-based presentation of eye movements to make the strategic processing of multimedia material visible to the learner. The basic idea is that the underlying cognitive processes can be inferred from gaze behavior. Learners were therefore presented with eye movement modeling examples (EMMEs), i.e., experts’ gaze replays superimposed onto learning material. Thus, experts’ information processing strategies are modeled by their eye movements. This should be beneficial for immediate learning success and furthermore lead to internalization of effective learning strategies which can then be applied to new learning situations. Aside from the general efficacy of EMMEs in a dissertation project the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Furthermore, we investigated in this project whether multimedia learning could be fostered by adaptivity, i.e., presenting information suited to learners’ needs.

Results of this project indicated that modeled eye movements can foster learning success. However, there seem to be additional factors (e.g., learners’ prior knowledge) that moderate the effectiveness of EMMEs which should be considered for the implementation and the use of EMMEs in practice. With regard to the adaptive presentation of information, the results also showed a beneficial effect for learning with multiple representations. Yet, there also seem to be factors (e.g., learners’ prior knowledge) which influence the effectivity of this instructional support.


Institute for Psychology, University of Freiburg

Institute for Media in Education, Pädagogische Hochschule Freiburg

Stuttgart Media University


Scheiter, K., Schubert, C., Schüler, A., Schmidt, H., Zimmermann, G., Wassermann, B., Krebs, M.-C., & Eder, T. (2019). Adaptive multimedia: Using gaze-contingent instructional guidance to provide personalized processing support. Computers & Education, 139, 31-47.

Scheiter, K., Schubert, C., & Schüler, A. (2018). Self-regulated learning from illustrated text: Eye Movement Modeling to support use and regulation of cognitive processes during learning from multimedia. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 80-94.