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Using Eye Movement Modeling Examples as an instructional tool for learning with multiple representations

LabMultiple representations
FundingIWM budget resources
Project description

Learners are often not able to use essential cognitive information processing strategies in multimedia learning. Eye Movement Modeling Examples (EMME) are one possibility to convey adequate information processing strategies to learners. This dissertation project focuses on underlying factors which are influencing the effectiveness of EMME. The results of this project are relevant wherever text and pictures are used for knowledge transfer (e.g., at school or university).

Previous empirical studies have shown that learners are often not able to use essential cognitive information processing strategies in multimedia learning. In this project we use the video-based presentation of eye movements to make the strategic processing of multimedia material visible to the learner. The basic idea is that the underlying cognitive processes can be inferred from gaze behavior. Learners are therefore presented with eye movement modeling examples (EMME), that is, experts’ gaze replays superimposed onto learning material. Thus, experts’ information processing strategies are modeled by their eye movements. This should be beneficial for immediate learning success and furthermore lead to internalization of effective learning strategies, which can then be applied to new learning situations. Results of previous research show a positive effect of EMME on the use of multimedia processing strategies as well as on learning outcomes. So far, however, the question of possible mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of EMME for multimedia learning has remained open. Several studies have therefore investigated whether social mechanisms and factors influence the effectiveness of EMME. Results indicated that EMME can be an effective instructional support for multimedia learning. However, they also indicted that there are social factors that can moderate the effectiveness of EMME. The findings from the studies contribute to a more effective implementation and use of EMME in practice.


Krebs, M.-C., Schüler, A., & Scheiter, K. (2019). Just follow my eyes: The influence of model-observer similarity on Eye Movement Modeling Examples. Learning and Instruction, 61, 126-137. request document